ROLE OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION ON SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE BUSINESS IN NIGERIA
- BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Accounting information is a part and parcel of today’s life which is necessary tounderstand the accurate financial situation of the organization and used as the basis of makingstrategic decisions. Accounting plays a critical role in the success or failure of contemporary business institutions.
Accounting information serves as a critical tool for recording, analyzing, monitoring and evaluating the financial condition of companies, preparation of documents necessary for tax purposes, providing information support to many other organizational functions,(Amidu et al., 2011). In the context of SMEs, accounting information is important as itcan help the firms manage their short-term problems in critical areas like costing, expenditure and cashflow, by providing information to support monitoring and control.
The range of accounting information users is a broad one, and it has different information needs, but the same quality requirements in terms of accountinginformation contained in the financial statements. Even if a number of criticisms and limitations can be brought and attributed to accounting information, it remains themost important substantiation source of financial decisions for most small and medium scale business.
According to Ademola et al (2012), accounting information is essential to business management. It involves identification, classification, storage and protection, receipt and transmission, retention and disposal of records for preparation of financial statements.
Within contemporary economic conditions, a successful small scale business owner needs a lot of reliable accounting information in order to be able to make quality business decisions (Miko, 1998). Economical information especially financial and accounting ones are the information which always small scale business owners use in short term and strategic decisions and they may have most application among different variables effective in decision-making and in all types of decisions, thereby boosting productivity and profitability of the business.
As a result of the increasingly important role that the financial-accountinginformation plays today in small and medium scale business as “social good”, accounting has consolidated its central placewithin the information system of any enterprises, be it public or private, clearly bringing its“contribution in an area of complex social, multilateral and multidimensional relations.
The impact of accounting information is a function of the benefit that are derived by the members of the society who had bind themselves into the social organization of their survival and want satisfaction quest (Anyigbo 1999).
Business benefit from availability of accounting information, equality important is the availability of accounting informationwhich facilitates the solution or resolution of business planning, organization and control function of the enterprises as a social organization. The numbers of Small and medium scale enterprises in Nigeria tend to increase continuously,they are the largest business cluster in Nigeria, yet withlittle or nocriticismsthey are regarded as the primary business organisms that could help enhance and sustain wealth of an economy in the long run.
Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) have been very important in many countries, because of its role for the country’s economic growth. This contribution is judged from providing employment to skilled and unskilled workers,enhancing national Gross Domestic Products, and providing support to other small and large business small scale business enterprise (Heenetigala& Armstrong, 2009). Recognition of small business contribution motivates public and private organizations to support the small business sector by providing them with a diverse range of services. They are also important to the development of trades and job market, moreover some Small and Medium Enterprises have high potential to expand their enterprises to a larger scale, despite challenges especially in financial and accounting systems.
This research; therefore, focuses on investigating the roles accounting information plays on small and medium scale business in Nigeria, types of accounting records being kept and maintained by SMEs, their completeness and the availability of accounting skills and knowledge to capture and process accounting information which can be used to measure productivity and performance in SMEs.
- STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
A number of Small Scale Enterprises have not given much attention to accounting information and bookkeeping in relation to their business transaction, despite its importance in the success of small scale business enterprise. This could be lack of sound knowledge in book keeping practices by owners or respective managers.
Also, there was difficulty in ascertaining whether comprehensive accounting records that satisfied the laws under which it was incorporation had been kept. It was hard to determine to what extent no adherence to laid – down accounting procedure and constituted in the wheel of implementation of good accounting system.
Most small scale firm owners prefer to recruit unskilled personnel especially clerical and accounting staff. The product of these unskilled accounting (clerical staff) has only succeeded in helping the small scale firms to stagnate; some firms have even wound up. This was because unskilled accounting staff could not keep reliable accounting records that would stand the test of time statutory; such staff could not correctly determined the profit or loss of the firm preparing profit and loss account.
Difficult exist in ascertaining how far non – recognition of the necessity of accounting information to continued existence and growth, low educational background of owners and the employment of unskilled accounting staff had affected the production of unreliable accounting or financial statement.
It has also been ascertained that most small-scale enterprises fail to keep proper books of account and also fail to observe basic accounting procedures. As a result, they are not able to portray the exact financial position of their businesmall scale business enterprise. This tends to impede the ability of the enterprise to obtain the much needed loans from the financial institutions and other sources for expansion and diversification. The financial statements, such as the profit and loss accounts, the balance sheet and the cash flow statement of small-scale enterprises cannot easily be prepared. Under such circumstances, annual profits cannot readily be determined.
Small and medium scale enterprises in Nigeria are however, often encountered with accounting and financial management challenges. Poor record keeping, inefficient use of accounting information to support their financial decision-making and the low quality and reliability of financial data are part of the main problems in financial management concerns of Small and medium scale enterprises in Nigeria.
(Adeboye 2005) While proper accounting is a useful system for making sound economic decisions, The misuse, untimely, poor record keeping, and inaccuracy of accounting information also causes Small and medium scale business in Nigeria to inaccurately asmall scale business enterprises their financial situation, and make poor financial decisions.
These short comings might be the cause of difficulties to succeed and to raise fund or borrow money during the later stage. In the worst case, might face with the failure and perhaps bankruptcy in the end.
It is also important to state that the absence of proper accounting information does not only impair the growth of the small-scale enterprise but also, as stated earlier, reduces their chances of obtaining credit facilities from the financial institutions and other fund lenders. It is obvious that a cash starved small-scale enterprise is bound to encounter difficulties in its attempt to expand and/or diversify its operation.
- OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major objective aim is to examine the role of accounting information on small scale business productivity and performance.
Other specific objectives aimed to be achieved are:
- To examine the importance of accounting information and basic accounting procedures in small-and medium scale enterprises.
- To determine the extent to which accounting information and basic accounting procedures have been implemented and applied in small-and medium scale enterprises.
- To investigate the types of accounting records being kept and maintained by small-and medium scale enterprises.
- To ascertain the extent to which accounting information is being used as a financial tool formeasuring financial performance ofSMEs.
- Analyze the relationship between accounting information & small scale firm performance.
- To analyze the completeness of accounting records being kept by SMEs as a source of information for economic and financial decision making.
- Determine the major barriers to accessing to efficient accounting information.