TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Training has been defined as the planned and systematic modification of behaviour through learning events, programmes and instruction which enable individuals to achieve the level of knowledge, skills and competence to carry out their work effectively (Armstrong).
The author also defines development as the “growth or realization of a person‟s ability and potential through the provision of learning and educational experiences”. Training generally focuses on providing immediate knowledge, skills and attitudes required by the individual to carry out his/her job. Development focuses on the future – assisting the individual to grow on the job and prepare him/her for a career and increased responsibility.
Both training and development seek to ensure that the individual has the right knowledge and skills to perform according to standards established by the organisation. In this section we would walk you through the key steps in identifying training and development needs, designing training and development programmes and training and development methods used in organisations.
THE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
Training and development process is made up of five steps:
- Training Needs Analysis:- Training needs are differences between employee current or potential performance and expected performance which can be remedied by appropriate training. Training Needs Analysis is made up of two components: Assessment of Organisation Needs and Identification of Individual Needs. Stages of training need analysis include date collection, interpretation, recommendation and action plan (Cole, G. A.).
- Drawing up of Training Programme: Appropriate training curriculum and methods are designed to fill the knowledge and skills gap identified in (a) above.
- Implementation of Training Programme: At this point, the decision reached in (b) is implemented. (d) Evaluation of Training Programme: This is aimed at assessing the impact of training programmes on trainees and the organization.
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT METHODS
Training methods are broadly categorized into three:
(a) One-the-job (b) off the job and (c) on and off the job training
(a) On-the Job-Training
Here the training is incorporated into the work of the employee. He or she practices the job under the close supervision of an experienced supervisor or worker until he is skilled enough to do the job alone. Examples of on the job training methods are as follows:
- Demonstration: Here, the trainer shows in a systematic manner the method of carrying out a specific job and allows the trainee do it himself.
- Understudy: An understudy is a person who is training to assume at a future date the duties currently performed by his/her superior. An individual or group is assigned to assist a superior officer in the performance of his/her duties. When the understudy shows promise or talent he/she takes over when the superior is transferred, retired or is promoted to a higher position.
- Job Rotation/Planned Experience: Job rotation is the practice of rotating people from job to job or from one department to another, or from one branch to another with a view to exposing them to new challenges and diversified skills.
- Project or Committee Assignments: In this method, managers are assigned to projects or committees to carry out specific assignments. These assignments help to improve their decision-making skills and ability to organise resources.
- Temporary Promotions: To help some managers acquire the necessary managerial skills they are assigned higher responsibilities and made to carry out the challenging tasks of the higher position.
(B) OFF THE JOB TRAINING
As the name implies the employee is trained outside the organisation. Examples of off the job training are as follows: –
- Sponsorship for short courses organized by consultants and educational institutions.
- Day releases to enable employees attend professional courses.
- Distance learning
- Computer based learning approved by the organisation.
C. ON AND OFF THE JOB TRAINING
This training combines the features of (a) and (b). The employee is trained outside, comes back to apply the skills on the job and goes back again for training. Examples of this type of training are as follows:
- Study tours.
BENEFITS OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
An organization with a good training programme derives the following benefits:
- Improved Performance on the Present Job: After a training programme, the employee‟s level of performance on the job increases.
- Improve Morale: Training programmes help to increase the morale and job satisfaction of trainees. (c) Reduction of Operational Problems: Training helps to reduce operational problems such as accidents, high labour turnover, poor customer service, waste and maintenance costs.
- Increased Productivity: By improving the standard of performance, quality of workmanship and morale of workers, training helps to increase production and profits of the organisation.
- Provision of Human Resource Needs: The organisation fulfils its needs for certain type of skills without going out to recruit.
- Reduced Supervision: Well-trained workers need no close supervision – they need not be told what to do in every situation.
- Improved Services to Customers: Training exposes employees to new ideas and techniques, which helps to improve service to customers and enhance the image of the organisation.