RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PROCESS
Recruitment is defined as all activities carried out to fill vacancies in an organisation. These activities may be classified into two:
- Internal and
- External recruitment.
Internal recruitment focuses on employing people from within the organisation. External recruitment, on the other hand, refers to the employing people from outside the organisation.
- INTERNAL RECRUITMENT
This is the recruitment of employees from within the organisation. Internal sources of recruitment are
(a) Promotions, transfers
(b) Job posting and
(c) Job bidding:
(a) Promotions or Transfer: When a vacancy occurs, existing employees whose qualifications and experience suits the vacant job could be promoted or transferred from a different department to fill the vacancy.
(b) Job posting: In this method the vacancy is announced on the notice boards, house journal and memos in the organization, inviting interested qualified staff of the organization to apply.
(c) Job bidding: In this system employees are allowed to indicate interest in a specific position they are qualified for before the job becomes vacant. When the vacancy occurs the bidders are considered for appointment.
- EXTERNAL RECRUITMENT
This has to do with the recruitment of employees outside the organisations to fill vacancies. There are six sources of external recruitment:
- Educational Institutions: Some organisations recruit employees direct from universities, polytechnics and other educational institutions.
- Unsolicited Applications: Some organisations receive unsolicited application letters from people looking for employment. Some of these applications are kept in view and the applicants are written to when there are vacancies.
- Employee Referrals: This refers to the use of existing employees to recommend qualified applicants to fill vacancies.
- Employment Agencies: An employment agency is an organisation that recruits employees for clients free of charge or for a fee.
There are three types of employment agencies:
Public employment agencies, private employment agencies and management consultancies. Professional Organisations: Professional bodies (e.g. Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria, Chartered Institute of Bankers of Nigeria etc., may recommend members for employment to interested organisations.
- Advertisement: This is the recruitment of employees by advertising on the internet, newspapers, television, radio etc.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT
- It creates promotion opportunities for employees.
- It reduces the cost of recruitment.
- The internal applicant is better known than those from external sources – the selection process is therefore simplified.
- The organisation benefits from investment it made in training of employees.
- There is less risk in making mistakes in selection because it is easy to appraise the performance of internal applicants.
- Qualified people may not be available within the organizations
- A strict internal recruitment policy might lead to “in-breeding i.e. the perpetuation of old ways of doing things and stagnation of the organisation.
- The organisation may lag behind other within the industry which are recruiting people with superior skills from outside
- It creates a large pool of people from which the organisation could recruit the best.
- It helps bring in better qualified people into the organisation.
- Reduced training costs
- It is an expensive source of recruitment. Cost incurred on external recruitment includes cost of advertising, interviews, selection tests, background investigation and medical examinations.
- The organisation could make the wrong choice of employees.
Selection has to do with choosing the most suitable person who meets the requirements for the job.
A typical selection process consists of the following activities:
- Analysis of application form.
- Selection Tests.
- Selection Interview.
- Background investigations.
- Medical Examinations.
- Offer and placement.
- ANALYSIS OF APPLICATION FORM
This is a form on which a prospective applicant fills out details about himself or herself. It helps provide the background information, which can be used to carry out a preliminary sorting out of suitable applicants who meet the requirements of the organisation.
Most application forms require the following information about applicants:
- Name of applicant.
- Name of parents.
- Date and place of birth.
- Nationality and hometown.
- Present address/e-mail address.
- Telephone number.
- State of health.
- Marital and family status.
- Education, qualification, courses, publications etc.
- Previous employer, job experience-post, salary, period, type of work, reasons for leaving.
- Position being applied for and reasons.
- SELECTION TESTS
A selection test is the process of assessing the present and potential ability of a prospective employee to do a job. Selection tests provide valued and reliable information on the level of intelligence, personality characteristics, abilities, aptitude and attainment of the applicant.
Examples of selection tests are as follows:
- Aptitude Tests: This is used basically to measure the latent or potential ability of a person to do a job or specific task within a job. Aptitudes often tested include manual dexterity; numerical and clerical abilities.
- Intelligence Tests: This is used to measure the ability of a person to reason logically; to remember or learn.
- Achievement Tests: These are used to evaluate the proficiency of a person in the performance of a specific job. They are usually applied to experienced people who claim they know how to do something. For example, a typist could be given an achievement test in typing as a means of evaluating her performance.
- Personality Tests: This measures the applicants social interaction skills and general behaviour e.g. temperament, introvert extrovert etc.
- Psychological Test: This helps selectors to determine applicants‟ abilities or characteristics. Selectors use this method to gain understanding of individuals so that they can predict the extent to which they will be successful in a job.
- SELECTION INTERVIEW
Selection interview refers to the formal conversation between an employer and prospective employee to enable the employer assess the latter‟s suitability for a job. Selection interviews are used to verify and clarify information provided by the applicant in the application letter/form and obtain further information on the applicant‟s abilities; physical make-up; attainment; intelligence; interests; which will help to make a valid prediction about the applicant‟s suitability for the job.
However, there are problems with selection interviews. Some interviewers are biased and prejudiced expecting to hear what they want to hear or expect to hear and might display emotional reaction to certain statements made by the applicant. The outcomes of interviews depend a lot on the qualities of the interviewer. An interviewer must have a good knowledge of the position being interviewed for and good communication skills. If the interviewers do not possess these qualities there is likely to be a flaw in the final selection made.
- MEDICAL/PHYSICAL EXAMINATIONS
This involves medical examination of the applicant at the employers own clinic or clinic/hospital chosen by the applicant. In the employment of miners, soldiers‟ policemen and other positions requiring a lot of physical effort, a medical examination is often compulsory.